Retaining wall type

Inclined retaining wall

About inclined retaining walls

There are two main inclined retaining wall types. Concrete block and Gabion basket. One uses concrete as its mass and the other stone-filled baskets. Concrete has more mass than stone and therefore needs less volume on large projects. The choice depends on the driver between cost and a long life span.

Gabion baskets can have a guaranteed life span of up to 50 years depending on the specification of the mesh. Concrete block walls can go far beyond this with a high-quality design mix.

The principles of the retaining wall design are exactly the same. The only variable is the mass of the materials being used. We can advise you on specifications and costs when we understand your project a little more, click here to make an initial enquiry.

About concrete interlocking block retaining walls

Concrete interlocking blocks are normally cast off-site at precast yards and delivered to site. The concrete mix is normally C40/C50 and C50/C60 for severe environments and long life. The blocks are modular in design and generally come in two sizes, 600mm wide x 600mm high or 800mm wide and 800mm high.

600mm-concrete-block

 

800mm-concrete-block

The selection of the block sizes will depend upon the retaining wall design. Interlocking concrete block walls are faster to build and have a long life span compared to gabion basket.

The blocks are made from high-strength (50N/mm2) concrete, using natural stone and aggregates. This allows the blocks to have high levels of durability.

As each block has its own lifting pin cast into it – you can easily change the way in which they are configured without the need for specialist lifting equipment or grabs.

The blocks can be finished from a range of textures and colours to match existing colours and textures.

Interlocking block design guide

Height 1800 2400 3200 3600 4000 4800
Block Type 600 600 800 600 800 800
Base Width 1000 1000 2000 1800 2000 2800
Base Depth 100-275 100-275 100-350 100-400 100-450 100-600
Base Rebar A393 A393 A393 A393 A393 A393
Wall Incline 100 100 100 100 100 100
Surcharge 5kn/m2 5kn/m2 5kn/m2 5kn/m2 5kn/m2 5kn/m2
Factor Of Safety M=1.5 M=1.5 M=1.5 M=1.5 M=1.5 M=1.5
Cost Index 28 35 74 78 100 146
Sketch Inclined-Block-Retaining-Walls sketch 1 Inclined-Block-Retaining-Walls sketch 2 Inclined-Block-Retaining-Walls sketch 3 Inclined-Block-Retaining-Walls sketch 4 Inclined-Block-Retaining-Walls sketch 6 Inclined-Block-Retaining-Walls sketch 6

 

Concrete-Block-Inclined-Retaining-Wall

 

The design table below shows examples of the wall heights and block configurations for a number of gravity retaining walls.

This table is for guidance purposes only and may be subject to change following a detailed, site-specific design developed by an approved structural engineer.

About gabion basket retaining walls

Gabion baskets are made from wire baskets using a mesh size between 3mm to 5mm. The wire can be made from plain steel coated in zinc and plastic coated. For a greater life span the wire can be made from 3/4mm stainless steel. The baskets are assembled on site and filled with rock or stone. Construction of gabion walls on site is about 5 times longer than concrete blocks. This needs to be considered when selecting either concrete or gabion walls. We can support you in this decision when we understand your project, click here to make an initial enquiry.

The selection of the gabion basket sizes will depend upon the design of the wall. A number of block sizes may be used to achieve the most effective design.

The selection of the wire thickness and type will depend on the design life and location of the wall. For example, a coastal location will require a heavy gauge of wire.

Gabion retaining walls are inclined at 6 degrees from the vertical to improve stability, with the correct specification the inclination can be increased normally to a maximum of 10 degrees which can provide cost savings in design. Care should be taken in designing vertical walls because of their flexible nature.

Gabion Baskets Triple Life Coated PVC Green-Zinc Coated PVC Grey-Zinc Coated Stainless Steel Type 304
Unit Size Wire Dia Wire Dia / Overall Thickness Wire Dia / Overall Thickness Wire Dia
1 x 1 x 1m 3.0, 4.0, 5.0mm 3.0/3.5mm & 3.8/4.3mm 3.0/3.5mm 3.0mm
1.5 x 1 x 1m 3.0, 4.0, 5.0mm 3.0/3.5mm & 3.8/4.3mm 3.0/3.5mm 3.0mm
2 x 1 x 1m 3.0, 4.0, 5.0mm 3.0/3.5mm & 3.8/4.3mm 3.0/3.5mm 3.0mm
3 x 1 x 1m 3.0, 4.0, 5.0mm 3.0/3.5mm & 3.8/4.3mm 3.0/3.5mm
1 x 1 x 0.5 3.0, 4.0, 5.0mm 3.0/3.5mm & 3.8/4.3mm 3.0/3.5mm 3.0mm
1.5 x 1 x 0.5m 3.0, 4.0, 5.0mm 3.0/3.5mm & 3.8/4.3mm 3.0/3.5mm 3.0mm
2 x 1 x 0.5m 3.0, 4.0, 5.0mm 3.0/3.5mm & 3.8/4.3mm 3.0/3.5mm 3.0mm
3 x 1 x 0.5m 3.0, 4.0, 5.0mm 3.0/3.5mm & 3.8/4.3mm 3.0/3.5mm

Gabion basket design guide

Height (mm) 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 4000 5000
Wire Type 4mm Galfan 4mm Galfan 4mm Galfan 4mm Galfan 4mm Galfan 4mm Galfan 4mm Galfan
Stone Type Limestone Limestone Limestone Limestone Limestone Limestone Limestone
Base Width 1300 1300 1800 1800 2400 2900 2400
Base Depth 150 150 150 150 200 200 200
Surcharge (mm) 10kn/m² 10kn/m² 10kn/m² 10kn/m² 10kn/m² 10kn/m² 10kn/m²
Factor of Safety M=1.5 M=1.5 M=1.5 M=1.5 M=1.5 M=1.5 M=1.5
Sketch Gabion Design Guide sketch 1 Gabion Design Guide sketch 2 Gabion Design Guide sketch 3 Gabion Design Guide sketch 4 Gabion Design Guide sketch 5 Gabion Design Guide sketch 7 Gabion Design Guide sketch 7

 

Gabion-Basket

The design table above shows Indicative designs for inclined retaining walls based upon a base material with allowable bearing pressure of >200kPa.

The design uses well-graded, granular backfill with the back of the wall having drainage to relieve hydrostatic pressure.

All indicative information presented in this table is based upon assumed loading and ground conditions. This table is for guidance purposes only and may be subject to change following a detailed, site-specific design developed by an approved structural engineer.

 

 

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    Retaining wall design service

    The design of a retaining wall requires knowledge of the retaining material, the water table, the ground bearing capacity and any site constraints. The design requires a ground investigation and a structural engineer to ensure the design is fit for purpose.

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    FAQs about inclined retaining wall

    What is an inclined retaining wall?

    A reclined retaining wall slopes towards the retaining earth. A reclined retaining wall is more efficient that a vertical retaining wall as it used gravity in its favour.

    What do inclined retaining. wall cost?

    The cost to build a inclined retaining wall changes with the height of the wall, scale of project, location of the project and any site constraints.

    We do have a comprehensive price table and budget calculator in our price guide. The price guide costs change over time so we keep it in one document.

    You can download the document from this link. Get the price guide.

    What materials can be used for a inclined wall?

    Inclined retaining walls can be built from concrete lego type blocks, gabion baskets and masonry.

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